Questions of Test: English Usage And Comprehension-1

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1

Social life is an outflow and meeting of personality, which means that its end is the meeting of character, Temperament, and sensibility, in which our thoughts and feelings, and sense perceptions are brought into play at their lightest and yet keenest.
This aspect, to my thinking, is realized as much in large parties composed of casual acquaintances or even strangers, as in intimate meetings of old friends. I am not one of those superior persons who hold cocktail parties in contempt, looking upon them as barren or as best as very tryingly kaleidoscopic places for gathering, because of the strangers one has to meet in them; which is no argument, for even our most intimate friends must at one time have been strangers to us. These large gatherings will be only what we make of them-if not anything better; they can be as good places to collect new friends from as the slave-markets of Istanbul were for beautiful slaves or New Market for race horses.
But they do offer more immediate enjoyment. For one thing, in them one can see the external expansion of social life in appearance and behaviour at its widest and most varied-where one can admire beauty of body or air, hear voices remarkable either for sweetness or refinement, look on elegance of clothes or deportment. What s more, these parties are schools for training in sociability, for in them we have to treat strangers as friends. So, in them we see social sympathy in widest commonalty spread, or at least should. We show an atrophy of the nation, human instinct of getting pleasure and happiness out of other human beings if we cannot treat strangers as friends for the moment. And I would go further and paraphrase Pater to say that not to be able to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us, even when we meet them casually, is on this short day of frost and sun which our life if, to sleep before evening.
So, it will be seen that my conception of social life is modest, for it makes no demands on what we have, though it does makes some on what we are. Interest, wonder, sympathy, and love, the first two leading to the last two, are the psychological prerequisites for social life; and the need for the first two must not be underrated. We cannot make the most even of our intimate social life unless we are able to make strangers of our oldest friend's everyday by discovering unknown areas in their personality, and transform them into new friends. In sum, social life is a function of vitality.
It is tragic, however, to observe that it is these very natural springs of social life which are drying up among us. It is becoming more and more difficult to come across fellow-feeling for human beings as such in our society and in all its strata. In the poor middle class, in the course of all my life, I have hardly seen any social life properly so-called. Not only has the grinding routine of making a living killed all desire for it in them, it has also generated a standing mood of peevish hostility to other human beings. Increasing economic distress in recent years has infinitely worsened this state of affairs, and has also brought sinister addition-class hatred. This has become the greatest collective emotional enjoyment of the poor middle class, and indeed they feel most social when they form a pack, and snarl or howl at people who are better off than they.
Their most innocent exhibition of sociability is seen when they spill out from their intolerable homes into the streets and bazaars. I was astonished to see the milling crowds in the poor suburbs of Calcutta. But even there a group of flippant young   loafers would put on a conspiratorial look if they saw a man in good clothes passing by them either on foot or in a car. I had borrowed a car from a relative to visit a friend in one of these suburbs, and he became very anxious when I had not returned before dusk. Acid and bombs, he said, were thrown at cars almost every evening in that area. I was amazed. But I also know as a fact that my brother was blackmailed to pay five rupees on a trumped up charge when passing in a car through one such locality.
The situation is differently inhuman, but not a whit more human, among the well-to-do. Kindliness for fellow-human beings has been smothered in them, taken as a class, by the arrogance of worldly position, which among; the Bengalis who show this snobbery is often only a third-class position.

Q.2. The word discriminate in the last sentence of the third paragraph means:

2

Social life is an outflow and meeting of personality, which means that its end is the meeting of character, Temperament, and sensibility, in which our thoughts and feelings, and sense perceptions are brought into play at their lightest and yet keenest.
This aspect, to my thinking, is realized as much in large parties composed of casual acquaintances or even strangers, as in intimate meetings of old friends. I am not one of those superior persons who hold cocktail parties in contempt, looking upon them as barren or as best as very tryingly kaleidoscopic places for gathering, because of the strangers one has to meet in them; which is no argument, for even our most intimate friends must at one time have been strangers to us. These large gatherings will be only what we make of them-if not anything better; they can be as good places to collect new friends from as the slave-markets of Istanbul were for beautiful slaves or New Market for race horses.
But they do offer more immediate enjoyment. For one thing, in them one can see the external expansion of social life in appearance and behaviour at its widest and most varied-where one can admire beauty of body or air, hear voices remarkable either for sweetness or refinement, look on elegance of clothes or deportment. What s more, these parties are schools for training in sociability, for in them we have to treat strangers as friends. So, in them we see social sympathy in widest commonalty spread, or at least should. We show an atrophy of the nation, human instinct of getting pleasure and happiness out of other human beings if we cannot treat strangers as friends for the moment. And I would go further and paraphrase Pater to say that not to be able to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us, even when we meet them casually, is on this short day of frost and sun which our life if, to sleep before evening.
So, it will be seen that my conception of social life is modest, for it makes no demands on what we have, though it does makes some on what we are. Interest, wonder, sympathy, and love, the first two leading to the last two, are the psychological prerequisites for social life; and the need for the first two must not be underrated. We cannot make the most even of our intimate social life unless we are able to make strangers of our oldest friend's everyday by discovering unknown areas in their personality, and transform them into new friends. In sum, social life is a function of vitality.
It is tragic, however, to observe that it is these very natural springs of social life which are drying up among us. It is becoming more and more difficult to come across fellow-feeling for human beings as such in our society and in all its strata. In the poor middle class, in the course of all my life, I have hardly seen any social life properly so-called. Not only has the grinding routine of making a living killed all desire for it in them, it has also generated a standing mood of peevish hostility to other human beings. Increasing economic distress in recent years has infinitely worsened this state of affairs, and has also brought sinister addition-class hatred. This has become the greatest collective emotional enjoyment of the poor middle class, and indeed they feel most social when they form a pack, and snarl or howl at people who are better off than they.
Their most innocent exhibition of sociability is seen when they spill out from their intolerable homes into the streets and bazaars. I was astonished to see the milling crowds in the poor suburbs of Calcutta. But even there a group of flippant young   loafers would put on a conspiratorial look if they saw a man in good clothes passing by them either on foot or in a car. I had borrowed a car from a relative to visit a friend in one of these suburbs, and he became very anxious when I had not returned before dusk. Acid and bombs, he said, were thrown at cars almost every evening in that area. I was amazed. But I also know as a fact that my brother was blackmailed to pay five rupees on a trumped up charge when passing in a car through one such locality.
The situation is differently inhuman, but not a whit more human, among the well-to-do. Kindliness for fellow-human beings has been smothered in them, taken as a class, by the arrogance of worldly position, which among; the Bengalis who show this snobbery is often only a third-class position.
Q.3. In this passage the author is essentially:

3

Social life is an outflow and meeting of personality, which means that its end is the meeting of character, Temperament, and sensibility, in which our thoughts and feelings, and sense perceptions are brought into play at their lightest and yet keenest.
This aspect, to my thinking, is realized as much in large parties composed of casual acquaintances or even strangers, as in intimate meetings of old friends. I am not one of those superior persons who hold cocktail parties in contempt, looking upon them as barren or as best as very tryingly kaleidoscopic places for gathering, because of the strangers one has to meet in them; which is no argument, for even our most intimate friends must at one time have been strangers to us. These large gatherings will be only what we make of them-if not anything better; they can be as good places to collect new friends from as the slave-markets of Istanbul were for beautiful slaves or New Market for race horses.
But they do offer more immediate enjoyment. For one thing, in them one can see the external expansion of social life in appearance and behaviour at its widest and most varied-where one can admire beauty of body or air, hear voices remarkable either for sweetness or refinement, look on elegance of clothes or deportment. What s more, these parties are schools for training in sociability, for in them we have to treat strangers as friends. So, in them we see social sympathy in widest commonalty spread, or at least should. We show an atrophy of the nation, human instinct of getting pleasure and happiness out of other human beings if we cannot treat strangers as friends for the moment. And I would go further and paraphrase Pater to say that not to be able to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us, even when we meet them casually, is on this short day of frost and sun which our life if, to sleep before evening.
So, it will be seen that my conception of social life is modest, for it makes no demands on what we have, though it does makes some on what we are. Interest, wonder, sympathy, and love, the first two leading to the last two, are the psychological prerequisites for social life; and the need for the first two must not be underrated. We cannot make the most even of our intimate social life unless we are able to make strangers of our oldest friend's everyday by discovering unknown areas in their personality, and transform them into new friends. In sum, social life is a function of vitality.
It is tragic, however, to observe that it is these very natural springs of social life which are drying up among us. It is becoming more and more difficult to come across fellow-feeling for human beings as such in our society and in all its strata. In the poor middle class, in the course of all my life, I have hardly seen any social life properly so-called. Not only has the grinding routine of making a living killed all desire for it in them, it has also generated a standing mood of peevish hostility to other human beings. Increasing economic distress in recent years has infinitely worsened this state of affairs, and has also brought sinister addition-class hatred. This has become the greatest collective emotional enjoyment of the poor middle class, and indeed they feel most social when they form a pack, and snarl or howl at people who are better off than they.
Their most innocent exhibition of sociability is seen when they spill out from their intolerable homes into the streets and bazaars. I was astonished to see the milling crowds in the poor suburbs of Calcutta. But even there a group of flippant young   loafers would put on a conspiratorial look if they saw a man in good clothes passing by them either on foot or in a car. I had borrowed a car from a relative to visit a friend in one of these suburbs, and he became very anxious when I had not returned before dusk. Acid and bombs, he said, were thrown at cars almost every evening in that area. I was amazed. But I also know as a fact that my brother was blackmailed to pay five rupees on a trumped up charge when passing in a car through one such locality.
The situation is differently inhuman, but not a whit more human, among the well-to-do. Kindliness for fellow-human beings has been smothered in them, taken as a class, by the arrogance of worldly position, which among; the Bengalis who show this snobbery is often only a third-class position.

Q.4  What is the author trying to show through the two incidents in the paragraph beginning "Their most innocent exhibition of sociability"?

4

1. Social life is an outflow and meeting of personality, which means that its end is the meeting of character, Temperament, and sensibility, in which our thoughts and feelings, and sense perceptions are brought into play at their lightest and yet keenest.
2.This aspect, to my thinking, is realized as much in large parties composed of casual acquaintances or even strangers, as in intimate meetings of old friends. I am not one of those superior persons who hold cocktail parties in contempt, looking upon them as barren or as best as very tryingly kaleidoscopic places for gathering, because of the strangers one has to meet in them; which is no argument, for even our most intimate friends must at one time have been strangers to us. These large gatherings will be only what we make of them-if not anything better; they can be as good places to collect new friends from as the slave-markets of Istanbul were for beautiful slaves or New Market for race horses.
3. But they do offer more immediate enjoyment. For one thing, in them one can see the external expansion of social life in appearance and behaviour at its widest and most varied-where one can admire beauty of body or air, hear voices remarkable either for sweetness or refinement, look on elegance of clothes or deportment. What s more, these parties are schools for training in sociability, for in them we have to treat strangers as friends. So, in them we see social sympathy in widest commonalty spread, or at least should. We show an atrophy of the nation, human instinct of getting pleasure and happiness out of other human beings if we cannot treat strangers as friends for the moment. And I would go further and paraphrase Pater to say that not to be able to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us, even when we meet them casually, is on this short day of frost and sun which our life if, to sleep before evening.
4. So, it will be seen that my conception of social life is modest, for it makes no demands on what we have, though it does makes some on what we are. Interest, wonder, sympathy, and love, the first two leading to the last two, are the psychological prerequisites for social life; and the need for the first two must not be underrated. We cannot make the most even of our intimate social life unless we are able to make strangers of our oldest friend's everyday by discovering unknown areas in their personality, and transform them into new friends. In sum, social life is a function of vitality.
5. It is tragic, however, to observe that it is these very natural springs of social life which are drying up among us. It is becoming more and more difficult to come across fellow-feeling for human beings as such in our society and in all its strata. In the poor middle class, in the course of all my life, I have hardly seen any social life properly so-called. Not only has the grinding routine of making a living killed all desire for it in them, it has also generated a standing mood of peevish hostility to other human beings. Increasing economic distress in recent years has infinitely worsened this state of affairs, and has also brought sinister addition-class hatred. This has become the greatest collective emotional enjoyment of the poor middle class, and indeed they feel most social when they form a pack, and snarl or howl at people who are better off than they.
6. Their most innocent exhibition of sociability is seen when they spill out from their intolerable homes into the streets and bazaars. I was astonished to see the milling crowds in the poor suburbs of Calcutta. But even there a group of flippant young   loafers would put on a conspiratorial look if they saw a man in good clothes passing by them either on foot or in a car. I had borrowed a car from a relative to visit a friend in one of these suburbs, and he became very anxious when I had not returned before dusk. Acid and bombs, he said, were thrown at cars almost every evening in that area. I was amazed. But I also know as a fact that my brother was blackmailed to pay five rupees on a trumped up charge when passing in a car through one such locality.
7. The situation is differently inhuman, but not a whit more human, among the well-to-do. Kindliness for fellow-human beings has been smothered in them, taken as a class, by the arrogance of worldly position, which among; the Bengalis who show this snobbery is often only a third-class position. 

Q.5. The word they in the first sentence of the third paragraph refers to :

5

Scientists seeking new ways to repair damaged arteries and ailing hearts have coaxed stem cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It is the first time human embryonic stem cells have been nurtured to the point where they will organise into blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But it is not likely to be the last, as scientists pursue research into used for stem cells despite debate over the ethics of using the cells. The new development was reported in the online issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine said the research was a "nice illustration" of how stem cells can serve as a source of various types of cells, in this case for blood vessels. "I think this is terrific", said Gearhart, who was not part of the research team. "It is another good example of the isolation of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells. These are the kinds of papers we are going to see a lot of", Gearhart added. Langer said the work showed that endothelial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells line veins, arteries and lymph tissues. They are key to the structures that carry blood throughout the body. He said that if the technique was refined, scientists could eventually be able to make in the laboratory blood vessels that could be used to replace diseased arteries in the body. "There are thousands of operations a year now where doctors take vessels from one part of the body and transplant them to another", said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used to restore circulation to the cells damaged by the heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to re-establish blood flow to hearts failing due to blocked arteries. The research was conducted under a private grant, but Langer said that the cell culture used is one of 61 worldwide that have been approved by the National Institute of Health for federally funded research. The use of embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cultures that already existed and were made from embryos that were to be, discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of other human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek federal money to continue research using the same stem cell cultures, which were obtained from the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa, Israel. Embryonic stem cells are the ancestral cells of every cell in the body. In a developing embryo they transform into cells that make up the organs, bone, skin and other tissues. Researchers hope to direct the transformation of such cells to treat ailing hearts, livers, brains and other organs. Langer said his team cultured the cells in such a way that they were allowed to develop into the various types of cells that are precursors to mature tissue. From this colony, the researchers extracted cells that were following a linage that would lead to mature endothelial cells. These were further cultured and some eventually formed primitive vascular structures.


Q.6. Which of the following statements does not follow from the passage?

6

Scientists seeking new ways to repair damaged arteries and ailing hearts have coaxed stem cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It is the first time human embryonic stem cells have been nurtured to the point where they will organise into blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But it is not likely to be the last, as scientists pursue research into used for stem cells despite debate over the ethics of using the cells. The new development was reported in the online issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine said the research was a "nice illustration" of how stem cells can serve as a source of various types of cells, in this case for blood vessels. "I think this is terrific", said Gearhart, who was not part of the research team. "It is another good example of the isolation of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells. These are the kinds of papers we are going to see a lot of", Gearhart added. Langer said the work showed that endothelial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells line veins, arteries and lymph tissues. They are key to the structures that carry blood throughout the body. He said that if the technique was refined, scientists could eventually be able to make in the laboratory blood vessels that could be used to replace diseased arteries in the body. "There are thousands of operations a year now where doctors take vessels from one part of the body and transplant them to another", said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used to restore circulation to the cells damaged by the heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to re-establish blood flow to hearts failing due to blocked arteries. The research was conducted under a private grant, but Langer said that the cell culture used is one of 61 worldwide that have been approved by the National Institute of Health for federally funded research. The use of embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cultures that already existed and were made from embryos that were to be, discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of other human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek federal money to continue research using the same stem cell cultures, which were obtained from the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa, Israel. Embryonic stem cells are the ancestral cells of every cell in the body. In a developing embryo they transform into cells that make up the organs, bone, skin and other tissues. Researchers hope to direct the transformation of such cells to treat ailing hearts, livers, brains and other organs. Langer said his team cultured the cells in such a way that they were allowed to develop into the various types of cells that are precursors to mature tissue. From this colony, the researchers extracted cells that were following a linage that would lead to mature endothelial cells. These were further cultured and some eventually formed primitive vascular structures.

Q.7. Stem cell research involves:

7

Scientists seeking new ways to repair damaged arteries and ailing hearts have coaxed stem cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It is the first time human embryonic stem cells have been nurtured to the point where they will organise into blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But it is not likely to be the last, as scientists pursue research into used for stem cells despite debate over the ethics of using the cells. The new development was reported in the online issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine said the research was a "nice illustration" of how stem cells can serve as a source of various types of cells, in this case for blood vessels. "I think this is terrific", said Gearhart, who was not part of the research team. "It is another good example of the isolation of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells. These are the kinds of papers we are going to see a lot of", Gearhart added. Langer said the work showed that endothelial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells line veins, arteries and lymph tissues. They are key to the structures that carry blood throughout the body. He said that if the technique was refined, scientists could eventually be able to make in the laboratory blood vessels that could be used to replace diseased arteries in the body. "There are thousands of operations a year now where doctors take vessels from one part of the body and transplant them to another", said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used to restore circulation to the cells damaged by the heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to re-establish blood flow to hearts failing due to blocked arteries. The research was conducted under a private grant, but Langer said that the cell culture used is one of 61 worldwide that have been approved by the National Institute of Health for federally funded research. The use of embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cultures that already existed and were made from embryos that were to be, discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of other human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek federal money to continue research using the same stem cell cultures, which were obtained from the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa, Israel. Embryonic stem cells are the ancestral cells of every cell in the body. In a developing embryo they transform into cells that make up the organs, bone, skin and other tissues. Researchers hope to direct the transformation of such cells to treat ailing hearts, livers, brains and other organs. Langer said his team cultured the cells in such a way that they were allowed to develop into the various types of cells that are precursors to mature tissue. From this colony, the researchers extracted cells that were following a linage that would lead to mature endothelial cells. These were further cultured and some eventually formed primitive vascular structures.


Q.8. Which of the following could be made redundant by the research mentioned?

8

Scientists seeking new ways to repair damaged arteries and ailing hearts have coaxed stem cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It is the first time human embryonic stem cells have been nurtured to the point where they will organise into blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But it is not likely to be the last, as scientists pursue research into used for stem cells despite debate over the ethics of using the cells. The new development was reported in the online issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine said the research was a "nice illustration" of how stem cells can serve as a source of various types of cells, in this case for blood vessels. "I think this is terrific", said Gearhart, who was not part of the research team. "It is another good example of the isolation of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells. These are the kinds of papers we are going to see a lot of", Gearhart added. Langer said the work showed that endothelial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells line veins, arteries and lymph tissues. They are key to the structures that carry blood throughout the body. He said that if the technique was refined, scientists could eventually be able to make in the laboratory blood vessels that could be used to replace diseased arteries in the body. "There are thousands of operations a year now where doctors take vessels from one part of the body and transplant them to another", said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used to restore circulation to the cells damaged by the heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to re-establish blood flow to hearts failing due to blocked arteries. The research was conducted under a private grant, but Langer said that the cell culture used is one of 61 worldwide that have been approved by the National Institute of Health for federally funded research. The use of embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cultures that already existed and were made from embryos that were to be, discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of other human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek federal money to continue research using the same stem cell cultures, which were obtained from the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa, Israel. Embryonic stem cells are the ancestral cells of every cell in the body. In a developing embryo they transform into cells that make up the organs, bone, skin and other tissues. Researchers hope to direct the transformation of such cells to treat ailing hearts, livers, brains and other organs. Langer said his team cultured the cells in such a way that they were allowed to develop into the various types of cells that are precursors to mature tissue. From this colony, the researchers extracted cells that were following a linage that would lead to mature endothelial cells. These were further cultured and some eventually formed primitive vascular structures.


Q.9. Endothelial cells are said to have all of the following qualities except that:

9

Scientists seeking new ways to repair damaged arteries and ailing hearts have coaxed stem cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It is the first time human embryonic stem cells have been nurtured to the point where they will organise into blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But it is not likely to be the last, as scientists pursue research into used for stem cells despite debate over the ethics of using the cells. The new development was reported in the online issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine said the research was a "nice illustration" of how stem cells can serve as a source of various types of cells, in this case for blood vessels. "I think this is terrific", said Gearhart, who was not part of the research team. "It is another good example of the isolation of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells. These are the kinds of papers we are going to see a lot of", Gearhart added. Langer said the work showed that endothelial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells line veins, arteries and lymph tissues. They are key to the structures that carry blood throughout the body. He said that if the technique was refined, scientists could eventually be able to make in the laboratory blood vessels that could be used to replace diseased arteries in the body. "There are thousands of operations a year now where doctors take vessels from one part of the body and transplant them to another", said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used to restore circulation to the cells damaged by the heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to re-establish blood flow to hearts failing due to blocked arteries. The research was conducted under a private grant, but Langer said that the cell culture used is one of 61 worldwide that have been approved by the National Institute of Health for federally funded research. The use of embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cultures that already existed and were made from embryos that were to be, discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of other human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek federal money to continue research using the same stem cell cultures, which were obtained from the Rambam Medical Centre in Haifa, Israel. Embryonic stem cells are the ancestral cells of every cell in the body. In a developing embryo they transform into cells that make up the organs, bone, skin and other tissues. Researchers hope to direct the transformation of such cells to treat ailing hearts, livers, brains and other organs. Langer said his team cultured the cells in such a way that they were allowed to develop into the various types of cells that are precursors to mature tissue. From this colony, the researchers extracted cells that were following a linage that would lead to mature endothelial cells. These were further cultured and some eventually formed primitive vascular structures.

Q.10. The readership, that the passage is intended for, is most likely to be :

10

While complex in the extreme, Derridas work has proven to be a particularly influential approach to the analysis of the ways in which language structures our understanding of ourselves and the world we inhabit, an approach he termed deconstruction. In its simplest formulation, deconstruction can be taken to refer to a methodological strategy which seeks to uncover layers of hidden meaning in a text that have been denied or suppressed. The term text, in this respect does not refer simply to a written form of communication, however. Rather, texts are something we all produce and reproduce constantly in our every day social relations, be they spoken, written or embedded in the construction of material artefacts. At the heart of Derridas deconstructive approach is his critique of what he perceives to be the totalitarian impulse of the Enlightenment pursuit to bring all that exists in the world under the domain of representative language, a pursuit he refers to as logocentrism. Logocentrism is the search for a rational language that is able to know and represent the world and all its aspects perfectly and accurately. Its totalitarian dimension, for Derrida at least, lies primarily in its tendency to marginalize or dismiss all that does not neatly comply with its particular linguistic representations, a tendency that, throughout history, has all too frequently been manifested in the form of authoritarian institutions. Thus logocentrism has, in its search for the truth of absolute representation, subsumed difference and oppressed that which it designates as its alien other. For Derrida western civilization has been built upon such a systematic assault on alien cultures and ways of life, typically in the name of reason and progress.
In response to logocentrism, deconstruction posits the idea that the mechanism by which this process of marginalization and the ordering of truth occurs is through establishing systems of binary opposition. Oppositional linguistic dualisms, such as rational/irrational, culture/nature and good/bad are not, however construed as equal partners as they are in, say, the semi logical structuralism of Saussure. Rather, they exist, for Derrida, in a series of hierarchical relationships with the first term normally occupying a superior position. Derrida defines the relationship between such oppositional terms using the neologism difference. This refers to the realization that in any statement, oppositional terms differ from each other (for instance, the difference between rationality and irrationally is constructed through oppositional usage), and at the same time, a hierarchical relationship is maintained by the deference of one term to the other (in the positing of rationality over irrationality, for instance). It is this latter point which is perhaps the key to understanding Derridas approach to deconstruction.
    For the fact at any given time one term must defer to its oppositional other, means that the two terms are constantly in a state of interdependence. The presence of one is dependent upon the absence of absent presence of the other. Such as in the case of good and evil. Whereby to understand the nature of one, we must constantly relate it to the absent term in order to grasp its meaning. That is, to do well, we must understand that our act is not evil for without that comparison the term becomes meaningless. Put simply, deconstruction represents an, attempt to demonstrate the absent-presence of this oppositional other, to show that what we say or write is in itself not expressive simply of what is, present, but also of what is absent. Thus, deconstruction seeks to reveal the, interdependence of apparently dichotomous terms and their meanings relative to their textual context; that is, within the linguistic power relations which structure dichotomous terms hierarchically. In Derridas own lords, a deconstructive reading "must always aim at a certain relationship, unperceived by the writer, between what he commands and what he does not command of the patterns of a language that he uses. ..[It] attempts to make the not-seen accessible to sight".
 Meaning, then, is never fixed or stable, whatever the intension of the author of a text. For Derrida, language is a system of relations that are dynamic, in that all meaning we ascribe to the world are dependent not only on what we believe to be present but also on what is absent. Thus, any act-of-interpretation must refer, not only to what the author of a text intends, but also to what is absent from his or her intention. The insight leads, once again, to Derridas further rejection of the idea of the definitive authority of the intentional agent or subject. The subject is decentred; further rejection of the idea of the definitive authority of the intentional agent or subject. The subject is decentred; it is conceived as the outcome of relations of difference. As author of its own biography, the subject thus becomes the ideological fiction of modernity and its logo centric philosophy, one that depends upon the formation of hierarchical dualisms, which repress and deny the presence of the absent other. No meaning can, therefore, even be definitive, but is merely an outcome of a particular interpretation.

Q.11. According to the passage. Derrida believes that the system or binary opposition:

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